> a ljbjbA]A] 'd+?+?XfR.NNN8*O\O.CiSS(6S6S6S6S6S6Shhhhhhh,jRmh6S6S6S6S6ShZ6S6ShZZZ6Sb6S6ShZ"h6ShZZZSNUZZ,i0CiZmZmZZ..JN..NWhat Mathematical Media Suit Adult Students?
Sakorn Boondao
USavadee Chantarasonthi
Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University,
Pakkret, Nonthabuti 11120, Thailand
sboondao@gmail.com
Abstract
Many first year university students lack basic mathematical knowledge. At Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University (STOU) this has been an ongoing problem. Having no entrance test, STOU attracts students with widely different mathematical backgrounds. Many students, weak in mathematics, find mathematics courses difficult.
STOU diagnostic testing showed that many first year students lacked understanding of some of the basic fundamentals of mathematics (Boondao and Chantarasonthi, 2004). These students had great difficulty when faced with compulsory mathematics courses at university level.
Therefore, a bridging course in basic mathematics was introduced. Basic mathematics textbooks and lessons on CD ROM were produced to help students to prepare for university mathematics courses. Mixed media was used. As Daniel (2007) said There is no magic instructional medium and never will begetting the media mix right is the key to enjoyable and successful learning.
The objectives of this study were: 1) To study the effectiveness of the Basic Mathematics textbooks and CD ROM. And 2) To compare the achievements of students who studied by Textbooks only, by CD ROM only and those who studied both by textbooks and CD ROM. The contents were lower secondary mathematics at a level relevant to STOU mathematics courses. Three textbooks were produced covering Real numbers, Algebra and Geometry. Flash MX was employed to cover the same contents on CD ROM. Explanations, pictures and prompt feedback were the main advantages of the CD ROM.
The population were students who enrolled in one of four mathematics courses in the first semester of 2007. The sample were 97 students who volunteered to trial the materials. Each chose one of three study groups: 28 studied from textbooks, 26 from the CD ROM and 43 studied from both textbooks and the CD ROM. They were asked to do pretests and posttests and to complete a questionnaire about the materials. The return rate was 54.6% with 15, 17 and 21 students respectively from each of the above groups.
The findings were as follows. Students had an average age of 31. Most (53%) evaluated their mathematics knowledge as only fair and had previously failed the course. All groups found that the textbooks and the CD ROM were very appropriate. They agreed that they gained more knowledge. Pretests and posttests were compared for each group by ttest. Posttest scores were significantly higher than the pretest scores at .05 level. ANCOVA was employed to compare the posttest between groups. It was found that there no significant difference between the three groups.
The results from the questionnaire, pretests and posttests showed that the mathematics contents in the textbooks and the CD ROM were useful for students. They understood the contents better. Although there was no significant difference between the groups, it might be that students chose the right media for themselves. Institutions should realize that a variety of media would enable students to choose one that suits their learning style.
Key words: adult education; remedial mathematics; print; CD ROM.
Introduction
Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University (STOU) is the only university in Thailand providing a distance education system with open entry for undergraduate students. There is no doubt that students in the system have widely different backgrounds. Lack of basic mathematical knowledge is a common ongoing problem for the university. Therefore many students who did not have enough school mathematics found that university mathematics courses were difficult.
Boondao and Chantarasonthi (2004) diagnosed the misconceptions in basic mathematics of STOU students. They found that students had incorrect conceptions concerning some fundamental properties of numbers, which caused problems in understanding algebra. The concepts of operations on numbers was another problem. Students memorize without understanding and cannot explain how they get answers and cannot judge whether or not an answer is reasonable. In trigonometry, some students had no idea of the meanings of sine, cosine and tangent.
In 2005, a bridging course in basic remedial mathematics was introduced. Basic remedial mathematics textbooks and lessons on CD ROM were produced to help students to lay a foundation for university mathematics courses. Mixed media were used as advised by Daniel (2007). Research was conducted to find out whether mathematical media in the form of textbooks, CD ROM or both textbooks and CD ROM were best suited to adult students.
The objectives of the study were 1) To study the effectiveness of the Basic Mathematics textbooks and CD ROM. And 2) To compare the achievements of students who studied by textbooks only, by CD ROM only and those who studied both by textbooks and CD ROM.
Literature Review
Distance education involves the production of study materials using a range of media. The lecturers role in a students learning process is reduced by their separation. As a result, the design of learning media has concentrated on students interacting with media and creating their own thinking, motivation and active learning behavior (Peters, 1998). Interaction is an essential factor in teaching and learning (Garrison and Shale, 1990). Effective interaction between students and the contents is common for students who use educational media carefully designed to help students reach their learning goal (Hannifin, 1989).
Traditionally, because of its familiarity, low cost, portability and ease of use, text has been the most common medium used in distance education. It can allow students to study at their own pace and in their own time. This makes print, the technology of choice for many adult students (Moore and Kearsley, 2005). Moore and Kearsley also pointed out that text suffers limitations, as do other media, but that most can be overcome through good design. Print that is carefully designed at the correct level will enable most people with motivation to learn.
Bates (1995) said that for the reader is to obtain meaning from a text, interaction is essential. Ways to structure a students response to the material may include: detailed measurable objectives, structured headings, selfassessment questions within the text, activities, summaries, past exam questions and model answers.
Marland, et. al. (1990), investigated how students make use of text and found that although such organization of student reading can be useful, it must be carefully implemented to encourage students to process information at a deep rather than a surface level.
In computerbased learning, students work their way through predesigned material, answering questions and choosing optional paths through the learning material. The computer program may utilize students responses to questions to guide them through the material, and provide feedback on their responses to questions (Bates, 1995). Friesen (1991) reported increased motivation and sense of accomplishment of adult basic education learners using computers to learn, especially where the programs use innovative techniques for gaining and holding attention.
A CD ROM may be used to distribute computerbased study programs that students use alone when working on a personal computer. The main strength of computerbased instruction is that it can provide a high quality opportunity for the student to interact with subject matter under his or her complete control. The teaching strategies may involve inquiry methods, simulations, and games (Moore and Kearsley, 2005). The material on the CD ROM may include text, animations, sound, pictures and video. The CD ROM may also contain links to the Internet enabling the use of email and web boards to allow interaction with the teacher and other students.
By providing a choice of media in a remedial basic mathematics course for adult students in distance education, an opportunity was created to find that what type of media, textbooks only, CD ROM only or both was most suited to the students.
Methodology
The population were students who enrolled in one of four mathematics courses in the first semester of 2007. Four hundred invitation letters were sent to students randomly, a hundred for each mathematics course. The invitation news was advertised in the university website, the university monthly news letter and in a news paper. They were asked to choose their own type of study methods, textbooks only, CD ROM only and both textbooks and CD ROM. The sample were 97 student volunteers. Each chose one of three study groups: 28 studied from textbooks, 26 from the CD ROM and 43 studied from both textbooks and the CD ROM.
The study instruments were as follows. 1) Three textbooks (i) Numbers contained five chapters (ii) Geometry and Trigonometry contained two chapters and (iii) Algebra contained four chapters. 2)A CD ROM was developed using Flash MX. It covered the same contents as the textbooks. Explanations, pictures and prompt feedback were the main advantages of the CD ROM. 3) A workbook contained the pretests and posttests for each chapter. 4) Two sets of questionnaires requesting comments on each chapter of the textbooks/CD ROM as well as their usefulness and also seeking information about students study behavior, demographic information and openended questions. The questionnaires used a scale ranging from 1 to 5 for students to indicate their degree of approval of various aspects of the study materials or their degree of agreement with statements about the effects of the materials on their study.
The topics for student comments on the textbooks were 1) The Contents and Presentation: contents, order, presentation, explanations, pictures/graphs 2) Examples: quantity, interesting selection, grading, explanations 3) Exercises: quantity, grading, interesting selection of problems.
The topics concerning the advantages the students received were: gained more knowledge, helped to understand a university mathematics course better, were able to review knowledge, became confident of their ability to self study mathematics in a distance education system, the connection of contents presented to the environment.
The topics regarding students behavior in studying from the basic mathematics textbooks were: studied basic mathematics textbooks regularly, followed the instruction strictly and gained self discipline to study the basic mathematics textbooks.
The CD ROM contained similar topics as in the textbooks but had extra details such as sound which helped students understand mathematics better.
The particular instruments and instructions were sent to each group of students. They were asked to do pretests and posttests and to complete a questionnaire and return them within a month.
There were 55 students who returned questionnaires, 27% from students who studied using textbooks only, 34.5% from students who studied using the CDROM only and 38.2% from those who studied using both the textbooks and the CDROM.
Results
The results were classified into five topics as follows.
1. Demographic: There were more females than males. Their average age was 31. More than half of the students hold vocational diplomas. They mainly worked in the private sector. Nearly half had incomes less than 10,000 baht (about 320 USD) per month. They rated their mathematical ability as moderate. Details are in Table 1.
Table 1 Students demographic data
N%Sex55100.0 male1730.9 female3869.1Age average age 30.75*, SD = 8.15955100.0 19 29 years3156.4 30 39 years1323.6 40 49 years1018.2 more than 49 years11.8Education55100.0 Junior high school11.8Senior high school1629.1Diploma2443.6Bachelor degree610.9Higher than bachelor degree 59.1Others35.5
* The mean age is calculated from all the individual ages of all participants. The 4 age ranges add additional information visvis distributions.
Table 1 (Cont.)
N%Income55100.0Less than 10,000 baht 2647.310,000 20,000 baht 1730.920,001 30,000 baht814.530,001 40,000 baht23.6More than 40,000 baht 23.6Mathematical knowledge 55100.0Good23.6Moderate 2952.7Poor1527.3Very Poor916.4
2. Students who studied using the remedial basic mathematics textbooks only: They found that the textbooks were very appropriate in contents and presentation, examples and exercises. Ranking from the highest frequency were contents and presentation, exercises and examples respectively. Students suggested that they needed more explanation of the contents and examples, more examples and more detailed solutions to exercises rather than just the answers. Students agreed that the textbooks were very helpful, they were able to revise basic mathematics and gained more knowledge. They also strongly agreed that the textbooks encouraged a disciplined approach to study and regular study habits. Details are in Table 2.
Table 2 Students comments about remedial basic mathematics textbooks
Text BooksMeanThe contents and presentation:3.98Examples3.76Exercises3.86The advantages the students received.4.13Students behavior in studying from the basic mathematical textbooks3.73
3. Students who studied using the remedial basic mathematics CD ROM only: They found that the CDROM was very appropriate in its contents and presentation, examples, exercises and explanations of contents and the sound track. Ranking from the highest frequency were contents and presentations, explanations of contents and sound track, examples and exercises respectively. They suggested that they wanted to have more details in the contents and while studying they would like to be able to move from any point in the CD ROM content to another during the explanations. They also found that the explanations were too fast. They suggested that they needed more examples and more detailed exercise solutions rather than just a list of answers. Students agreed that the CDROM was helpful. They were able to revise basic mathematics and gain more knowledge. But they were not convinced that the CD ROM enhanced their study behavior by encouraging discipline and regular study habits. Details are in Table 3.
Table 3 Students comments about remedial basic mathematics CD ROM
CD ROMMeanThe contents and presentation.4.00Examples.3.75Exercises.3.69The advantages the students received4.42Students behavior in studying basic mathematical from the CD ROM3.41
4. Students who studied using both remedial basic mathematics textbooks and CD ROM: The students who studied from both textbooks and the CD ROM commented about the textbooks that in general they found that the textbooks were appropriate in every item. The average of the presentation of the contents had the highest mark followed by exercises and examples. They agreed that they had gained advantages from studying using textbooks and gained more knowledge from the textbooks and were able to review basic knowledge. They also agreed that working from the textbooks encouraged a disciplined approach and a regular pattern of study.
With regard to the CD ROM, students found that the contents and presentation were very appropriate, but the examples and exercises were only moderately appropriate. Students found that the CD ROM was very helpful. They gained more knowledge and were able to review basic knowledge. They agreed that they studied regularly from the textbooks but did not particularly feel that studying from the CD ROM encouraged a disciplined approach to regular study. Details are in Table 4.
Table 4 Students comments about remedial basic mathematics Textbooks and CD ROM.
TopicsMeanTextbooksCD ROMThe contents and presentation: 3.813.70Examples3.713.48Exercises3.783.46The advantage the students received3.994.19Students behavior in studying from the basic mathematical textbooks3.573.31
5. Students achievement: The comparison of students achievement was reported under five headings as follows.
5.1 Comparison of the means of the pretests and posttests of students who studied from textbooks only. The pairedsample t test was used to compare the means of the pretests and posttests on three groups of contents: Real Numbers, Geometry and Algebra. The results showed that the mean of the posttest was significantly higher than of the pretest of all three group of contents at the level of .05. Details are in Table 5.
Table 5 Comparison of the mean scores of the pretests and posttests of students who studied from textbooks only.
Group of contentNMeanStandard DeviationtpReal Numbers Pretest (55)1419.421.79610.472.001 Posttest (55)1443.438.821Geometry.001 Pretest (20)147.931.0877.856 Posttest (20)1414.793.332Algebra Pretest (40)1420.008.8674.609.001 Posttest (40)1429.297.311
5.2 Comparison of the means of the pretests and posttests of students who studied from CD ROM only. The pairedsample t test was used to compare the means of the pretests and posttests on three groups of contents: Real Numbers, Geometry and Algebra. The results showed that the mean of the posttest was significantly higher than of the pretest of all three group of contents at the level of .05. Details are in Table 6.
Table 6 Comparison of the mean scores of the pretests and posttests of students who studied from CD ROM only.
Group of contentNMeanStandard DeviationtpReal Numbers Pretest (55)1630.199.2187.827.001 Posttest (55)1641.198.968Geometry.001 Pretest (20)168.943.2766.613 Posttest (20)1614.442.828Algebra Pretest (40)1321.157.5817.898.001 Posttest (40)1329.925.992
5.3 Comparison of the means of the pretests and posttests of students who studied from both textbooks and CD ROM. The pairedsample t test was used to compare the means of the pretests and posttests on three groups of contents: Real Numbers, Geometry and Algebra. The results showed that the mean of the posttest was significantly higher than of the pretest of all three group of contents at the level of .05. Details are in Table 7.
Table 7 Comparison of the mean scores of the pretests and posttests of students who studied from both textbooks and CD ROM.
Group of contentNMeanStandard DeviationtpReal Numbers Pretest (55)1933.689.8669.201.001 Posttest (55)1945.537.777Geometry.001 Pretest (20)199.163.9208.518 Posttest (20)1915.053.341Algebra Pretest (40)1922.268.0348.087.001 Posttest (40)1932.115.527
5.4 Comparison of the means of the pretests and posttests of students between three groups. The mean achievements of the three groups of students who studied textbooks only, CDROM only and textbooks and CDROM were compared. ANCOVA was employed to analyze the results. The pretest was used as covariate while posttest was dependent. It was found that there was no significant difference (F = .581, p = .563). Therefore the pretest was able to be used as covariate. The results, however, showed that there was no significant difference between the achievements of the three groups. Details are in Table 8.
Table 8 Comparison of students achievements using ANCOVA.
SourceSSdfMSFpGroup3067.8321533.921.810.174Error43232.5751847.70Total443129.0055Corrected Total55216.9854
5.5 Comparison of students pass rate between students involved in the project and those who were not. Students who studied mathematics courses and attended the final examination in the semester 1/2007 were divided into two groups, those who participated in this project and those studying the same courses who did not. Their achievements were compared by using the MannWhitney U Test. It was found that the number of participants who passed the final exam was significantly higher than the number of nonparticipants who passed, at a level.05. Details are in Table 9.
Table 9 Comparison of students pass rate between students involved in the project and those who were not.
Group (N)Passed (N, %)Fail (N, %)ZPParticipants (43)25 (58.14)18 (41.86)3.284.001Nonparticipants (3,938)1,347 (34.21)2591 (65.79)
Discussion
The discussion will focus on students satisfaction towards the remedial basic mathematics media in distance education and their achievement when using the media
Students satisfaction towards the remedial basic mathematics media in distance education. The results of the study showed that all three groups of students: those who studied by textbooks only, by CD ROM only and those who studied both by textbooks and CD ROM found that the materials that they used were very appropriate. They also found that textbooks and the CD ROM were very helpful. The result reflected the objective of the study that the basic mathematics textbooks and CD ROM would be effective.
The reasons for success may come from the following factors. Firstly, students had chosen the media that they felt suited their learning styles. Secondly, being adults who had learning experience, the motivational effect of a new experience may lead them to learn smoothly (Hannifin, ed. al. 2003). Also, the contents related to real life so that students may have felt that it was relevant to them. Thirdly, being adult, they appreciated the selfdirected learning which involved independent study and selfresponsibility (Moore, 1993 and Moore and Kearsley, 1996). The Students have flexibility to learn at convenient times. They have discipline to learn by studying regularly to reach their goals. Fourthly, the carefully designed structure of the basic mathematics textbooks and the CD ROM for adults who had poor to fair mathematics backgrounds was a considerable advantage. The media contained objectives, a system of headings and subheadings, selfassessment questions, activities and feedback (Bates, 1995 and Moore and Kearsley, 2005). Students were able to learn in small content steps and evaluate their understanding at the end of each topic. It corresponded to Bates (1995) suggestion that the basic mathematics textbooks and the CD ROM allowed them to work at their own pace. They had interaction with the contents by having prompt feedback which motivated them to learn (Friesen, 1991; Garrison and Shale, 1990 and Hannifin, 1989).
Students achievement when using the media. When comparing the achievements of students in the three groups, it was found that there were no significant differences. We can not claim that one type of media or another is best for adult students in distance education. The study indicates that any type of carefully designed mathematical media suited adult students whenever they had opportunity to choose the media that fitted their learning style. But mixed media tended to perform better (Daniel, 2007). Moreover, when comparing the pass rate of students in the three groups and those who did not use the materials but took the same courses, the students in the three groups had significantly higher pass rates than the others. This indicated that when adult students in distance education had remedial basic mathematics, they were more successful in studying a university mathematics course.
Conclusion
Adult students in distance education who lack basic mathematics backgrounds should be looked after by providing remedial programs, with a choice of media, before they study a university mathematics course. Any type of media carefully designed for adult students in distance education is beneficial. Availability of different media gives students the opportunity to choose those that suit their own learning style. Therefore, the university should provide a mix of media for different types of distance students who mainly study on their own with less contact with the tutors.
References
Bates, A.W. (Tony). (1995). Technology, Open learning and Distance Education. London: Routledge.
Boondao, S. and Chantarasonthi, U. (2004). Impediments to Adults Returning to Study Tertiary Mathematics. Paper presented in ICME 10th 4 11 July 2004, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Daniel, J. (2007). Blending for Success in Open and Distance Education: Public/Private Partnerships; Human and Social Capital; Free and Copyrighted Content; Mixing the media. paper presented at 21st AAOU Annual Conference, 2931 October 2007, Malaysia.
Friesen, V. (1991). A Critique of ComputerManaged Instruction in the Light of the Key Principles of Adult Education, Burnaby, BC: Simon Fraser University, M.A. (Education) Thesis.
Garrison, D. R., and Shale, D. (1990). Education at a Distance: From issues to practice. Melbourne, FL.: Krieger.
Hannafin, M., Hill, J.R., Oliver, K., Glazer, E., and Sharma, P. (2003). Cognitive and learning factors. in Moore, M.G., and Anderson, W.G. (Eds.). Handbook of Distance Education. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher.
Hannafin, M., J. (1989). Interaction strategies and emerging instructional technologies: Psychological perspectives. Canadian Journal of Educational Communication, 18(3), 167179.
Marland, P., Patching, W., and Putt, I. (1992). Thinking while studying: A process teaching study of distance learners. Distance Education. 13(2), 193217.
Moore, M. and Kearsley, G. (2005). Distance Education: A System View. 2nd ed. Australia: Wadsworth.
Moore, M. G. (1993). Theory of Transactional Distance. In D. Keegan (Ed.). Theoretical Principles of Distance Education. (pp. 2238). London: Routledge.
Moore, M. G., and Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance Education: A Systems View. New York: Wadsworth.
Peters, O. (1998). Learning and Teaching in Distance Education: Analyses and Interpretations from an International Perspective. London: Kogan Page.
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