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Z"An Investigation into Bilingual Adult Mathematics Learners within an Irish Context.
Mire N Rordin John O Donoghue
University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland
Maire.NiRiordain@ul.ie John.ODonoghue@ul.ie
Abstract
The relationship between mathematics and language is complex. This research project is concerned with students (Gaeilgeoir) in the transition from Gaeilge (Irish) medium second level maths education to English medium third level maths education. In previous research carried out a maths life histories approach was utilized in order to gain narrative accounts of adult mathematics learners experiences of this transition, which informed future research to be undertaken in this research domain. This paper reports on this follow-up research, which incorporated a mixed-methods approach. Findings on how language influences mathematics learning for third level bilingual students (Gaeilgeoir), the mathematical and language challenges they face and the language use employed in their mathematical thinking will be explored and discussed for these adult learners. This is the first time this type of research has been undertaken in Ireland and little research has been carried out internationally at third level in relation to bilingual learners, so the findings of this research are significant given that this is an evolving area of research.
Key words: mathematics education; bilingualism; language influence.
Introduction
The teaching and learning of mathematics like any other school subject must be communicated through a language medium.
(Adetula, 1990, p. 351)
The language we initially learn mathematics through will provide the foundations to be built upon and developed within that language. A characteristic feature of the Irish primary and post-primary schools system is that the curriculum can be mediated in either Gaeilge (Irish) or English. Since the foundation of the Irish Free State (1921), the education system has been recognized and utilized as a basis of the movement for fostering Gaeilge-English bilingualism (Education Act, 1998, Pr.1, Section 6). This paper will report on post-primary students (Gaeilgeoir) transfer from Gaeilge medium second level education to English medium third level mathematics education.
Language is employed as a communication tool and facilitates the transmission of (mathematical) knowledge, values and beliefs, as well as cultural practices. Language is also the channel of communication within a mathematics classroom as language provides the tool for teacher-student interaction (Smith & Ennis, 1961). Competence in the language of communication/interaction is a prerequisite for engagement in the learning process. For mathematical learners this is twofold in that they are required to have competence in the language of instruction and in the language of mathematics (the mathematics register). However, what is of concern to the authors is the effect that a change in the language of instruction has on Gaeilgeoirs mathematics learning and understanding.
Background to Research Project
Two diverse Gaeilge medium schooling contexts in Ireland. Teaching and learning through the medium of Gaeilge is the natural environment for students in Gaeltacht areas (Irish speaking districts) of Ireland. Gaeilge is the language of the community and of the home; thus it is natural for these students to learn through this medium. However immersion education also exits in Ireland in that students from an English speaking background and area can opt to study through the medium of Gaeilge in special Gaeilge medium schools established throughout the country. These are known as Gaelscoileanna (primary level schools) and Gaelchlaist (second level schools).
However, English medium education is the norm in Irish third level institutions. The authors are concerned with issues that may arise for Gaeilgeoir in this transition to English medium education. It is anticipated that significant difficulties may arise on the Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) subjects mathematics in particular. Gaeilgeoir submerged in this transition will be required not only to learn new mathematics but also learn mathematics through the medium of a new language (Barwell, 2003).
Scant attention ahs been given the area of bilingualism and mathematics learning within Ireland. Yet the topic of learning and teaching mathematics has been studied extensively in other countries (USA, Canada, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Spain and UK). Findings reveal conflicting views about the learning of mathematics in a second language at all levels of education. Some studies have found positive correlations and cognitive benefits from learning through the medium of a second language (e.g. Barwell, 2003; Bournot-Trite & Tellowitz, 2002; Clarkson, 1992 & 2007; Cummins, 1979; Swain, 1996; Williams, 2002). While other studies put forward that such students underachieve in mathematics (e.g. Adetula, 1990; Barton et al, 2005; Galligan, 1995; Gorgori & Planas, 2001; Secada, 1992; Setati & Adler, 2000). Baker (1996) raises the issue of the lack of research undertaken in Ireland, whereas Neville-Barton and Barton (2004) place emphasis on the lack of research into bilingualism and maths learning undertaken at third level. Thus this research is contributing both to mathematics education nationally and internationally.
Maths Life Histories
The aim of the exploratory research carried out was to establish and clarify the key issues facing Gaeilgeoir in the transition to English medium third level education. This was to ensure that subsequent data collection would address the relevant issues and contribute to development in this research domain. A maths life histories approach was utilized (see Coben & Thumpston, 1994), which involved the use of semi-structured interviews in order to gain narrative accounts of Gaeilgeoirs experiences of mathematics and their experience of the transition to a new medium of education. Following is a diagrammatical representation of the findings emerging from this exploratory research.
Figure 1. Diagrammatical representation of the findings from the maths life histories.
Clearly for bilingual Irish adult learners, maths understanding is influenced by language, personal conceptions and culture. These are interrelated and for a detailed description of the findings see N Rordin (2007). A number of key findings were deducted from the exploratory research carried out. These findings included:
Cummins (1976) conjectured that there may be a threshold level of language competence that bilinguals must achieve in order to avoid cognitive deficits and to allow the potential benefits of being bilingual to come to the fore. There is a need to investigate this hypothesis in relation to Gaeilgeoir in order to assess whether the level of language competence in both languages (Gaeilge/English) has detrimental/beneficial influences on mathematics learning for these adults.
If important progress is to be made in improving mathematics education for adult bilingual learners in Ireland, further investigation is required in relation to the particular aspects of the mathematics register in English which hinder their learning of mathematics and are sources of difficulty when through the medium of a new language.
The various cultural influences on learning, understanding and mathematics should be examined and assessed in relation to its impact upon Gaeilgeoir in the transition to English medium third level education.
There is a lack of resources and support available to those in the transition from Gaeilge to English medium maths education, which makes the transition difficult, isolated and confusing for those experiencing it. Schools and universities need to be made aware of the needs of Gaeilgeoir in their institutions and provide the necessary help required.
These findings influenced the design and implementation of the second phase of data collection.
Description of the Study
Subjects
Both subjects from Gaeltacht schools (9) and Gaelchlaist (6) participated in the study, as well as a monolingual control group consisting of six students who had learnt mathematics entirely through the medium of English at primary and second level education. The bilingual students had studied mathematics entirely through the medium of Gaeilge at primary and second level education. All subjects were in their first year of third level education and all were studying mathematics.
Test Instruments
A mixed-method approach was employed in the data collection and analysis. The bilingual students completed a mathematics word problem test in English, a questionnaire, language proficiency tests in English and in Gaeilge and seven of the subjects participate in a follow-up interview. The monolingual students completed the same mathematics word problem test and the English language competency test. Students require considerable competence in the language of presentation in order to understand the content of maths word problems. Hence word problems can be effectively used in investigating language issues for mathematics learners in a second language (Newmans Research Method, 1977). The English maths word problems test consisted of nineteen word problems, with a number of subparts in some of the questions. Sixteen of the word problems were constructed using the PISA mathematical literacy framework (2006). The remaining three questions on the test consisted of cloze type questions (see Hate & Kane, 1975). The questions involved definitions or explanations of mathematical terminology employed in a standard mathematics lecture/tutorial. Several words were deleted at random from each explanation and the participants were required to fill in the missing word in each of the blank spaces provided. Clearly an understanding of the mathematical terminology employed was required in order to complete the explanations.
A standard English cloze proficiency test was sourced through the Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English (Cambridge Examinations Publishing, 2002). Currently no standard competency test in Gaeilge exists in Ireland. However Aonad na Gaeilge at the University of Limerick has designed an internal competency test in accordance with the Council of Europes Common European Framework of Reference for Language (CEF). Permission was granted to use this test which consisted of sixty-five multiple choice cloze type questions. Only the bilingual students completed the questionnaire which consisted of nine identifiable sections background information, schooling experience, general experience of the transition, relationship between maths and language, difficulties being experienced, interaction with lectures/tutors/other students, strategies for learning, cultural influences, comparison of learning experiences in both languages. Seven of the bilingual students agreed to participate in a follow-up interview. The interviews were semi-structured so that the questions used encouraged the interviewee to talk about specific times, experiences and feelings, rather than relying on the use of general questions (Hollway & Jefferson, 2000). During the interview participants also completed a language use survey in order to gain an insight into the language employed when answering maths word problems (Clarkson, 2007). Finally, they had to complete two word problems during the interview and to talk about each step as they were completing them (Newman Research Method, 1977). This was carried out in order to gain a deeper understanding of the mathematical problem skills employed by bilingual adult learners at third level education in Ireland.
Findings
Given the variety of methods employed in the data collection there is a large body of findings emerging from the research undertaken. Therefore, the authors will present and discuss the key outcomes emerging from the analysis of the data. Following is a diagrammatical representation of the relationships of the key influences on Gaeilgeoirs transition from Gaeilge to English medium maths education. Each element warrants a separate discussion but for the purpose of this paper only the key findings are discussed along with the relationships emerging from the analysis.
SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT
Figure 2. Relationships between key findings.
Mathematics and Language
When examining the relationship between mathematics performance and language competency, English language competency was found to be of more significance than competency in Gaeilge. This may be due to the more decontextualised nature of the mathematics word problems used and given that they are modelled on the PISA (2006) framework which is concerned with mathematical literacy and thus competence in the language of presentation is of importance. The significance of competency in English at this transition is also highlighted by the fact that monolingual students performed on average better mathematically than the bilingual students in this study. Clearly there is a high correlation between a students mathematics performance through the medium of English and their competency in English. Therefore the author proposes that it may be appropriate for second level mathematics teachers to introduce partial instruction through the medium of English for Gaeilgeoir in upper second level education so as to facilitate the development of academic language proficiency in English as well as proficiency in the English mathematics register.
The findings provide support for Cummins Threshold Hypothesis (1976). Once again bilingual students with a high level of competency in both languages outperformed their monolingual peers and those dominant in one of the languages. Equally the bilingual students with low competency in both languages performed poorly in comparison to all other groups. Dominance in the English language was more favourable to dominance in Gaeilge and monolingualism and this is consistent with the previous correlations between mathematics performance and English language competency. It is evident that mathematics performance and language are related for Gaeilgeoir in the transition to English medium third level education and the challenge they face lies in developing their academic language competency in English to an adequate level in order to cope with the new language of instruction and learning. Similarly, Gaeilgeoir confront the challenge of developing their Gaeilge and English language competency to a sufficient level as the findings demonstrate that a high competency in both languages supports mathematical ability.
Schooling
Gaeilgeoir emerging from Gaelchlaist (Immersion education) performed slightly better than Gaeilgeoir transferring from Gaeltacht second level schools (Maintenance Heritage Language schools). This provides support for the development of Additive bilingualism as promoted by Immersion education, whereas Subtractive bilingualism may actually be hindering Gaeilgeoirs transition to English medium mathematics education. The challenge faced by Gaeltacht students therefore lies in developing a sufficient level of academic English language in order to cope with the new language of instruction and learning and promote the acquisition of Additive bilingualism.
Sources of Difficulty
The language features of the English mathematics register that appears to be sources of difficulty for Gaeilgeoir at third level include syntax, semantics and mathematics vocabulary. It became apparent that it was the basic mathematics vocabulary that caused problems such as numerator and denominator and this is perhaps due to the fact that would have acquired these words through the medium of Gaeilge at a young age and would not have encountered the English version of the words. They also experienced problems with probability as performance on these questions was poor in comparison to the monolingual students. What was interesting at this transition was that both the bilingual and monolingual students performed poorly on the cloze type questions incorporated in the test instrument. This suggests that the students in this study have a poor understanding of mathematics vocabulary and the mathematics register in English. Given that language plays a significant role in the learning and understanding of mathematics, the challenge faced by Gaeilgeoir is acquiring the mathematics register through the medium of English. However the emphasis should be placed on the Common Underlying Proficiency (Baker, 2001). Outwardly both languages are different in conversation but internally both languages are merged and do not function independently of one another. Thus both languages contribute to, access and use a central processing unit for mathematics learning and understanding. Gaeilgeoir are faced with the challenge of recognising and developing the awareness that both languages (Gaeilge and English) are of importance to their mathematics learning and can be used to their advantage for developing mathematical understanding.
Awareness
The maths life histories undertaken in this research project revealed that mathematical understanding for Gaeilgeoir is influenced by language and that Gaeilgeoirs cultural background, conceptions of maths and experiences exercise a large influence on the development of this understanding. This was further explored during phase 2 of data collection. One of the key issues emerging from the investigation at third level was the lack of awareness of the influence of language on mathematics learning. When asked to assess the rate of difficulty of certain aspects of mathematics learning and language, Gaeilgeoir appear to be relatively confident in coping with English as the new medium of instruction and learning. However, this is not reflected in their performance on the mathematics word problem test. This highlights the lack of awareness evident and this may hindering when transferring to English medium of education. Thus, Gaeilgeoir face the challenge of recognising that they are bilingual and recognising the importance of their languages for mathematics learning and understanding.
There exists among Gaeilgeoir a fear of acknowledging and voicing that they may be experiencing difficulties and consequently third level institutions are unaware of some of the issues Gaeilgeoir are encountering. Thus no specific support structures are in place in any of the institutions who participated in this study. Gaeilgeoir are relying on procedural knowledge in order to pass examinations, with little time given to the development of conceptual understanding. Some of these students are suffering loss and displacement due to having to study mathematics through the medium of a new language. This loss and displacement is occurring in mathematics understanding. The consequence of this may be their exclusion from the skills base of the emerging knowledge society. In order to counter this Gaeilgeoir are presented with the challenge of developing maths understanding through the medium of English while drawing on their knowledge through the medium of Gaeilge. Irish third level institutions are faced with the challenge of recognising that this cohort of learners exists and requires support structures to be implemented in order to counter the adverse effect learning through the medium of English is having on some of these students mathematical understanding.
Maths Understanding-Pedagogy-Culture
The findings of this research project demonstrated how mathematics understanding, pedagogy and culture are interdependent and neither can be understood without the other for Gaeilgeoir. These themes emerged from the maths life histories also. The pedagogic practices employed at second and third level education in Ireland promotes and encourages procedural knowledge with little time devoted to the development of conceptual understanding. Accordingly the system rewards rote learning and relaying of learned methods through examinations, and thus it is not surprising that relational understanding is lacking in Gaeilgeoirs perceptions of mathematics learning and understanding. Gaeilgeoir entering English medium third level education are emerging from a learning environment immersed in the Irish language and culture. This had a significant bearing on their experience at third level as well as influencing their maths understanding, as this culture was never acknowledged nor fostered by the institutions who participated in this study. It became very apparent that mathematics enculturation was impeded through the pedagogical practices employed at third level education. In order for Gaeilgeoir to develop mathematical understanding, pedagogical practices are of key importance, which in turn are evocative of cultural influences. Mathematics is a product of culture and diffused through pedagogy. Only by challenging the pedagogic and culture practices employed at third level can we challenge adult bilingual learners perceptions of mathematics and the type of mathematical understanding being developed.
Maths Understanding-Bilingual Factors-Conceptions of Maths-Language Use
Similarly, relationships between maths understanding, bilingual factors, conceptions of maths, and language use were also established for Gaeilgeoir. Again all are interdependent and none can be looked at in isolation. Although the majority of those interviewed found the general transition to third level education relatively easy, having to transfer from learning mathematics through Gaeilge to English posed problems for many and impacted on their learning and understanding of the subject. Their conceptions of mathematics were narrow and reflective of the procedural processes they have been subjected to. However, given the emphasis that Gaeilgeoir placed on issues encountered with mathematics terminology and the change in the language of learning, few saw a relationship between mathematics and language. The Language Use Survey revealed that Gaeilgeoir employ both languages when engaged in mathematical problem solving. Gaeilge was used primarily for thinking out a problem and conducting mental operations such as addition and multiplication. This appears to be a subconscious action and ingrained in their process skills. Translation was also employed as a means to help interpret mathematical content and provide confidence in attempting to answer the question(s). However, Gaeilgeoir seemed to lack an awareness of their language use and thus they saw no real advantage to having two languages for learning mathematics. Thus the challenge Gaeilgeoir are faced with is developing an awareness of their language use and its influence on mathematics learning and understanding.
Problem Solving
Finally, a key finding emerging from the data gathered at the transition to third level education is that when engaged in mathematical problem solving Gaeilgeoirs understanding tends to breaks down at the comprehension stage (Newman Research Method, 1977). This in turn has significant implications for the transformation of the content and for the selection of an appropriate mathematical strategy for solving the problem. Gaeilgeoir performed well on the process skills they employed, which is reflective of the pedagogic system in operation in Irish third level institutions. Clearly the challenge lies with teachers to facilitate better comprehension skills, while also stimulating Gaeilgeoirs maths experience.
Summary
Although the sample of students involved in this study is relatively small from which to draw generalizable conclusions about all Irish adult bilingual learners at third level education, the authors feel that the findings reported here present an adequate description of the situation that exists in Ireland. The aim of the research carried out was to identify the challenges faced by Gaeilgeoir in the transition to English medium third level maths education. Clearly they face numerous challenges which include mathematical challenges, linguistic challenges, cultural challenges, pedagogical challenges, bilingual challenges and personal challenges. Once we have identified Gaeilgeoirs needs only then can we address them and introduce appropriate pedagogical and support measures. Thus this is where the challenge lies for us as researchers in this new area of research in Irish adult mathematics education.
Acknowledgements
This research project is funded by the Mathematics Applications Consortium for Science and Industry (MACSI) at the University of Limerick, through Science Foundation Ireland (SFI). Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the foundation.
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Author: Mire N Rordin
LANGUAGE
PERSONAL CONCEPTIONS
CULTURE
UNDERSTANDING
CONCEPTIONS OF MATHS
LANGUAGE USE
BILINGUAL FACTORS
MATHS
UNDERSTANDING
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